Every chapter of the Qur'an begins with Bismillah but Surah tawbah doesn't begin with it, why?
The website ISLAMQA.COM has answered to this question in the following way.
The reason why the Basmalah does not appear at the beginning of Soorat at-Tawbah is that the Sahaabah (may Allah be pleased with them) did not write it at the beginning of this soorah in the Mushaf, following the example of the caliph ‘Uthmaan (may Allah be pleased with him). At-Tirmidhi narrated in as-Sunan that Ibn ‘Abbaas (may Allah be pleased with him) said: “I said to ‘Uthmaan ibn ‘Affaan: ‘What made you put al-Anfaal which is one of the Mathaani, next to Baraa’ah [al-Tawbah], which is one of the Mi’een? Why did you not put the line Bismillaah ir-Rahmaan ir-Raheem in between them when you put it at the beginning of the rest of al-Sab’ al-Tiwaal [the long seven soorahs]?” ‘Uthmaan said: “The Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) used to receive revelation of soorahs with many aayahs. When they were revealed, he would call his scribes and tell them, ‘Put these aayahs in the soorah where such-and-such is mentioned.’ Al-Anfaal was one of the first soorahs to be revealed in Madeenah, and Baraa’ah (al-Tawbah) was one of the last parts of the Qur’aan to be revealed. Its stories were similar to the stories mentioned in al-Anfaal, so it was thought that it was part of it. The Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) was taken [i.e., died] without explaining whether it was indeed part of it, so they were put next to one another, and the line Bismillaahi ir’Rahmaan ir’Raheem was not written between them, and it [al-Tawbah] was put among the Sab’ al-Tiwaal [seven long soorahs].” End quote from Fataawa al-Lajnah ad-Daa’imah, 4/225
When the start of every Surah of the Qur'an has been made with Bismillah, why then do you not start the Surahs in your salaat with Bismillah?
The website ISLAMQA.COM has answered this question in the following way.
Reciting the Basmalah (i.e., the phrase “Bismillaah ir-Rahmaan ir-Raheem (in the name of Allaah, the most Gracious, the Most Merciful)” is mustahabb (encouraged), not obligatory. It is mustahabb if you are going to recite a soorah from the beginning, so the worshipper says it before al-Faatihah. With regard to the soorah after al-Faatihah, if he is reciting it from the beginning of the soorah, then he should say the Basmalah, apart from Soorat al-Tawbah, because the Basmalah is not recited at the beginning of it. If he is reciting from the middle of a soorah, then it is not mustahabb to recite the Basmalah.
Prove 'Thanaa' Eulogy from the Qur'an.
Point out Assalaatu minan nawm to us from the Qur'an if not then at least from an authentic hadeeth.
Prove that these words had been used as part of the Adhan during Abu Bakr's period.
As regards the matter of insertion of the words 'come to the prayer' in Azaan is concerned the claim is also unfounded. The reason being that the words of Azaan is part of the Sunnah of the prayer instituted by the Holy Prophet (pbuh). The practice has been in currency since the day the Holy Prophet (pbuh) instituted it as the Sunnah. The authenticity of the practice does not hinge upon individual reports rather it depends on the generation-to-generation transmission of the words uttered in the call in all the five prayers. It is also clear from various reports that any addition that is deemed appropriate with reference to the circumstance can also be made in the words of this call for prayer. Also there is a legion of narratives, which clearly mention that the practice has been in vogue during the Holy Prophet's (pbuh) time. Let us study the report that is forwarded to prove the notion that Hazrat Umar (ra) inserted the words in the call to prayer.
Malik narrated that it was reported to him that the Mo`azzan approached Umar (ra) to call him to prayer. When he found Umar (ra) asleep he said: 'Prayer is better than sleep'. Umar (ra) commanded him to place the saying in the call for the Morning Prayer.
As is obvious the narrator does not mention the source and the report is not traced back to the caliph Umar (ra). Moreover, the text of the report is in clear contradiction with many authentic reports. As I have already mentioned that a host of narratives recorded in other books of the hadith mention that it was the Holy Prophet (pbuh) himself who had commanded his companions to add the sentence in the call for Morning Prayer. These reports which are mostly reported by more reliable and uninterrupted chains of reporters include Sahih of Ibn e Khuzaymah 385, 386; Sahih of Ibn e Habbaan 1682; Sunan of Abu Daud 500, 501, 504; Sunan Nisai 633, 647, 707; Sunan Ibn e Majah 716; Sunan Nisai al Kubra 1597, 1611; Sunan Bahaqi Al Kubraa 1617, 1824, 1831, 1832, 1833, 1835, 1731, 1834, 1836, 1837, 1838, 1840, 1845, and many others in Musnad Ahmad and other books.
Do you know that the sentence of "Prayer is better than sleeping" is also approved in some of the Shia ahadith:
Al-Tahzib by Al-Toosi, Vol. 2, No. 14: "Imam Jafar says: ... Al-Taswib (i.e. the statement of 'Al-Salat Khayron Min Al-Nawm') in Iqama is part of the Sunnat.
Al-Tahzib by Al-Toosi, Vol. 2, No. 15: "Imam Baqir (RA) says: My father (i.e. Ali Ibn Alhusayn (RA) used to say 'Al-Salat Khayron Min Al-Nawm,' in his Azan at home...'
Wasa'el Al-Shia, No. 6998: "Imam Jafar (RA) says: When you are in morning prayer say 'Al-Salat Khayron Min Al-Nawm' after 'Hayye Ala Khayr Al-Amal' in Azan but don't say it in Iqama.
According to the Shia scholar, Majlesi in his book Bihar Al-Anwar, Vol. 81 P. 150 certain Shia scholars of old times had allowed saying the sentence in the morning prayers. These are Ibn Al-Junayd and Al-Ju'fi.
Prove to us that the prayers of taraweeh had been said in congregation during the time of the holy Prophet[saww] and during the period of Abu Bakr.
Hadith fom Sahi Bukhari:
Narrated Zaid bin Thabit: Allah's Apostle made a small room (with a palm leaf mat). Allah's Apostle came out (of his house) and prayed in it. Some men came and joined him in his prayer. Then again the next night they came for the prayer, but Allah's Apostle delayed and did not come out to them. So they raised their voices and knocked the door with small stones (to draw his attention). He came out to them in a state of anger, saying, "You are still insisting (on your deed, i.e. tarawih prayer in the mosque) that I thought that this prayer (tarawih) might become obligatory on you. So you people, offer this prayer at your homes, for the best prayer of a person is the one which he offers at home, except the compulsory (congregational) prayer." (Book #73, Hadith #134)
Hadith fom Sahi Bukhari:
Narrated Zaid bin Thabit: The Prophet took a room made of date palm leaves mats in the mosque. Allah's Apostle prayed in it for a few nights till the people gathered (to pray the night prayer (tarawih) (behind him.) Then on the 4th night the people did not hear his voice and they thought he had slept, so some of them started humming in order that he might come out. The Prophet then said, "You continued doing what I saw you doing till I was afraid that this (tarawih prayer) might be enjoined on you, and if it were enjoined on you, you would not continue performing it. Therefore, O people! Perform your prayers at your homes, for the best prayer of a person is what is performed at his home except the compulsory congregational) prayer." (See Hadith No. 229,Vol. 3) (See Hadith No. 134, Vol. 8) (Book #92, Hadith #393)
You only have nine reports at your disposal as far as praying the salaat by folding your arms is concerned. On the principles of the transmitters of hadeeth, prove their chains as 'Saheeh' correct. And prove all the transmitters as reliable.
Actually the guru of Answering-Ansar , Abdul Kareem Mushtaq , seemed to have relied on few shias , because if he had himself researched in a good manner, he would not have missed these two ahadith in Abu Dawood and Sahih Muslim.
Book 004, Number 0792:
Wa’il b. Hujr reported: He saw the Apostle of Allah (may peace be upon him) raising his hands at the time of beginning the prayer and reciting takbir, and according to Hammam (the narrator), the hands were lifted opposite to ears. He (the Holy Prophet) then wrapped his hands in his cloth and placed his right hand over his left hand. And when he was about to bow down, he brought out his hands from the cloth, and then lifted them, and then recited takbir and bowed down and when (he came back to the erect position) he recited:” Allah listened to him who praised Him.” And when prostrates. He prostrated between the two palms.
Book 3, Number 0725:
Narrated Wa'il ibn Hujr:
I purposely looked at the prayer of the Apostle of Allah (peace_be_upon_him), how he offered it. The Apostle of Allah (peace_be_upon_him) stood up, faced the direction of the qiblah and uttered the takbir (Allah is most great) and then raised his hands in front of his ears, then placed his right hand on his left (catching each other).
Volume 1, Book 12, Number 707:
Narrated Sahl bin Sa'd:
The people were ordered to place the right hand on the left forearm in the prayer. Abu Hazim said, "I knew that the order was from the Prophet ."
Indeed this hadith is from Imam Malik, because because in his Muwatta (48/159/1), Imam Malik recorded the hadith of the position of the hands in which the right is over the left. This shows his willingness to accept the hadith that are true. His reasons for not following it would have been anything else, God knows well. But there is no doubt that he considered this hadith correct so he included it in his book and the claim of the answering-ansar's guru that how could this be from Imam Malik when he didn't practice it, is wrong, as he himself recorded the hadith of the position of the hands in which the right is over the left.
Al-Nawawi said : This Hadith is sahih
Ibn Hajar said this in Fath Al-Bari while commenting on this hadeeth. He said:
He says this hadeeth is analogous to the Hadith of A’isha when she said that they (the women) were ordered to make up the days missed in Ramadan. Obviously the one who ordered her to make it up was RasoolAllah, as no one else has the authority to legislate besides Allah and his messenger. The same is the case with the hadeeth of Qabd. Al-Bayhaqi said that there is no dispute amongst the Ulama’ on this issue.
So he also considered it sahih. None of the scholars of hadith have criticized this hadith.
And this hadith can also be found in Musnad of Imam Ahmad (336/5)
From the period of Abu Bakr, present any example or a report to prove that Abu Bakr said his prayers by folding his arms. If you can, why do the Malikis keep their arms straight while saying their prayers?
The Qur'an instructs us to fast till night "thamar atmou alsiyamar ilaa Al-lail", and night enters when darkness casts in. Why do you open your fasts early? Why were Umar and Uthman opening their fasts after Maghrib prayers?
Nuqaa' Umar, Page 110, Hadeeth 351, by Shah Waliallah Dhelavi
Lol, I mean we open fasts when the sun sets, and you , in your historic opposition to us, open your fast just ten minutes after us, do you think ten minutes after sun set becomes night? Dude it is still evening after ten minutes of the sun set and according to your logic, you are still opening your fast in evening, the night has not yet settled. If you really want to follow your logic , open your fast after two one hour of sun set. Ten minutes after us is just a show piece.
The thing is, evening is the beginning part of night and morning is the beginning part of day,
35:13 يولج الليل في النهار ويولج النهار في الليل وسخر الشمس والقمر كل يجري لاجل مسمى ذلكم الله ربكم له الملك والذين تدعون من دونه مايملكون من قطمير
[035:013] He merges Night into Day, and he merges Day into Night, and he has subjected the sun and the moon (to his Law): each one runs its course for a term appointed. Such is God your Lord: to Him belongs all Dominion. And those whom ye invoke besides Him have not the least power.
[035:013] He causes the night to enter in upon the day, and He causes the day to enter in upon the night, and He has made subservient (to you) the sun and the moon; each one follows its course to an appointed time; this is Allah, your Lord, His is the kingdom; and those whom you call upon besides Him do not control a straw.
Suppose if we reject it that evening is the beginning part of night, and morning is the beginning part of the day, than tell me , how would you explain this verse? Indeed morning and evening are the beginning parts of day and night. And we know that evening is the time when sun sets, so it is the time when we open our fast, you are in nowhere, because you open your fast ten minutes after us, if you think that evening is not the beginning part of night, and you think that night is when the darkness settles, than you open your fast neither when sun sets, nor when night settles, but you open your fast in the middle, which follows no logic, but only opposition to the mainstream Muslims.
You claim that the Shia'a Qur'an contains forty parts, prove its source from the four Shia key books (Kutub Al-'Arba'a).
Whatever the reason, your guru believes present Quran is corrupt. So what is the need of wasting time here. Anyhow , your most authentic hadith book , Al Kafi, says Quran consists of 14 parts, each part consisting of 1 thousand , 2 hundred and 4 verses so people can finish it two times every month. Enjoy your Quran of 17000 verses.