Compassionate Amongst Themselves
This is a translation of excerpts from the book of Mawlana Nafi, Ruhama bainahum, in which he described the good relations that existed between the ahlelbayt and the sahaba.
Most of the times , the Shias start the story of marriage of Ali and Fatima from the middle. They cleverly ignore the beginning of the story when narrating to the public. So we shall know how the marriage actually happened, and how Sahaba and especially Abu Bakr participated to make this marriage successful one.
Mulla Baqir Majlisi writes in his book, Jila ul Ayun (Chapter the marriage of Fatima to Ali)
One day , Abu Bakr , Umar and Saad bin Muadh were sitting in the masjid nabwi. Abu Bakr said that the nobles of Quraish asked the Prophet (s) about the hand of Fatima (i.e they wanted to marry her), he replied that the matter of Fatima is with Allah, whomever He wills, He will marry her to him.” And Ali hasn’t talked to the Prophet (s) about this , and in my opinion, nothing is stopping Ali except poverty. Than Abu Bakr said to Umar and Muadh, stand up and lets go to Ali and convince him for asking the hand of Fatima , if poverty is stopping him, than we shall help him. Saad said “You are absolutely correct O Abu Bakr”. So they stood up and then went to Ali. Ali was not present at his home, He had gone to the garden of an Ansari to water it for wages. They reached there, Ali inquired the reason for their coming , upon which Abu Bakr said “You have excelled others in good deeds and you are close to the Prophet (s) also, what is prohibiting you from asking the hand of Fatima. When Ali heard this, his eyes filled with tears. He said “Who doesn’t want to marry Fatima? But due to poverty, I feel shy to express my sentiments.” So they convinced him for this matter and he agreed to go to the Prophet (s). Ali came back to his home, and then went towards the Prophet (s).
Jila ul Ayun, p. 122-123
Bihar al Anwar , Vol. 10, p. 37-38
A similar tradition is present in Amali of Shaikh Tusi , Vol. 1, p. 38 with slight difference
So we know that Abu Bakr played a vital role in convincing Ali to marry Fatima.
Again, when it came to purchasing the necessities of a family , Abu Bakr was again on the frontline. He was the one who purchased the necessities for Ali and Fatima.
We read in Shaikh Tusi’s Amali
The Prophet gave money to Abu Bakr and said “Bring clothes and other things needed for Fatima, and sent with him Ammar bin Yasir and some other Sahaba. Then they went to market, whatever they wanted to buy, they would first show it to Abu Bakr. After he agreed , than only that thing would be purchased. (Afterwards thing purchased are mentioned). Then they purchased the things , Abu Bakr took few things, the other companions took the other things and came back to the Prophet (s) and showed the things they bought to him. He checked the things and said “May Allah put blessings in it for the Ahlel Bayt”
This is also mentioned in Jila ul Ayun, p. 126, chapter the marriage of Fatima to Ali,
إن رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم أخذ حفنة من الدراهم و أعطاها أبا بكر رضي الله عنه، وأمره أن يذهب إلى السوق و يشتري للسيدة فاطمة رضي الله عنها كل ما تحتاج إليه من الثياب وأغراض البيت، وأرسل معه عمار بن ياسر وجماعة من الصحابة رضي الله عنهم، كلما اختار أحدهم شيئاً أراه أبا بكر، ثم يشتريه استشارة منه وبأمره عليه
and in Manaqib ibn Shehr Ashoob, Vol. 4, p. 20
قال علي : فأقبل رسول الله صلى الله عليه واله فقال : يا أبا الحسن انطلق الان فبع درعك وائتني بثمنه حتى اهيئ لك ولا بنتي فاطمة ما يصلحكما . قال علي : فانطلقت فبعته بأربعمائة درهم سود هجرية ، من عثمان بن عفان فلما قبضت الدراهم منه وقبض الدرع مني قال : يا أبا الحسن لست أولى بالدرع منك وأنت أولى بالدراهم مني ، فقلت : بلى ، قال : فان الدرع هدية مني إليك فأخذت الدرعوالدراهم ، وأقبلت إلى رسول الله صلى الله عليه واله فطرحت الدرع والدراهم بين يديه وأخبرته بماكان من أمر عثمان ، فدعاله بخير
Ali says that the Prophet told him to sell his armor so that the things Fatima will need can be bought . Ali says “I took the armor to the market and sell it to Uthman on 400 dirham. When I took the money and he took the marmor , Than Uthkman said to me. Now this armor is mine and thhe money is your, right? I said “Right” . Than Uthman said “Now I gift this armor to you.” Ali said |”Itook the armor and money brought it to the Prophet and narrated to him what happened, upon which he prayed for Uthman. Than he gave the money to Abu Bakr and told him to buy for Fatima, the things she will need, and sent with him Bilal and Salman.
Manaqib, by Khwarizmi, p. 252-253
Kashaful Ghumma, Vol. 1, p. 485
Bihar al Anwar, Vol. 10, p. 40
Ali said “I came out of the house of the Prophet (s) and I was very happy, I met Abu Bakr and Umar in the way. They asked me what happened that you are so happy, I said “The Prophet has told me that Allah has married Fatima to me in the heavens, and now he is going to come out of his home and announce it in the public. Abu Bakr and Umar became extremely happy at this and came to masjid nabwi with me . The Prophet reached soon, than he told Bilal to gather Muhajireen and Ansar, which Bilal did. When all the people gathered, than the Prophet sat on the pulpit. After praising God, he said “O Muslims, Gabriel had cojme to me and informed me that Allah has made the angels witnesses that He has married Fatima to Ali, and has ordered me to marry Fatima to Ali and make all of you witnesses on the earth.
Bihar al anwar, Vol. 10, p. 38
Manaqib, by Khwarizmi, p. 251
Jila ul Ayun, p. 125
Kashaful Ghumma, by Ardbeli, Vol. 1, p. 471
Masruq narrates from Aisha and Umm Salma that they said that the Prophet (s) ordered them to make preparations for Fatima’s going to Ali. So we brought mud from the valley of Batha , than prepared the home , and cleaned it. Than we made two cushions with our hands. Then prepared food with dates and munqa, and arranged drinkable water. Then we placed a wood in the corner of the house so that clothes and water vessels can be hanged on it. Aisha and Umm Salma narrates that they didn’t saw any better marriage than the marriage of Fatima.
عن مسروق عن عائشة وأم سلمة قالتا أمرنا رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم أن نجهز فاطمة حتى ندخلها على علي فعمدنا إلى البيت ففرشناه ترابا لينا من أعراض البطحاء ثم حشونا مرفقتين ليفا فنفشناه بأيدينا ثم أطعمنا تمرا وزبيبا وسقينا ماء عذبا وعمدنا إلى عود فعرضناه في جانب البيت ليلقى عليه الثوب ويعلق عليه السقاء فما رأينا عرسا أحسن من عرس فاطمة
Ibn Maja, Kitabun Nikah, Babul Walima
Shaikh Tusi in his Amali has narrated a similar tradition that the Prophet (s) ordered his wives to decorate the house for Fatima, which they did.
Amali, by Shaikh Tusi, Vol. 1 , p. 40
So from this we come to know that Sahabas in general and Abu Bakr and his daughter Aisha in particular, actively participated in making the marriage of Fatima with Ali successful.
It is alleged that Aisha had hatred towards Ali, and different speculations are made based on different ahadith. But we have clear ahadith which proves these speculations wrong.
وعن شريح بن هاني رضي الله عنه قال : سألت عائشة عن المسح على الخفين فقالت : سل عليا ، فإنه أعلم بهذا مني ، كان يسافر مع رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم
It has been narrated from Sharih bin Hani that he said : I asked Ayesha about 'masah alal khifayn'. She said : Ask Ali, he knows more than me about it, he would travel with the Prophet (s).
Masnad Ahmad, Vol. 1, p. 56
Musannif , Abdur Razaq , Vol. 1, p. 203
عن جبير قال : قالت عائشة : من أفتاكم بصوم عاشوراء قالوا : علي . قالت : أما إنه لأعلم الناس بالسنة
It has been narrated from Jubair that Aisha said : who told you to fast on the day of ashura? It was said : Ali. So she said : He knows more about the sunnah than the others (so you can fast).
Istiab Vol. 3, p. 40
The Shias try to shoot two birds with a single arrow. They use this narration to prove that Ali had more knowledge, and they use other ahadith to prove that Aisha had hatred towards Ali. Both can't be correct at the sametime, because if we accept this narration , the myth of hatred of Aisha towards Ali will collapse simultaneously.
When the mother of Ali died, Usama, Umar, Abu Ayyub Ansari and Aswad prepared the grave for her, and the Prophet, Abbas and Abu Bakr placed her in her final resting place.
Majma ul zawaid, Vol. 9,p. 256
Jama ul fawaid, Vol. 2, p. 408
We read in Sharh Nahjul balagha by Ibn Abil hadeed al Rafidhi
عن كثير النوال قال : قلت لابي جعفر محمد بن على عليه السلام : جعلني الله فداك ! أرأيت أبا بكر وعمر ، هل ظلماكم من حقكم شيئا - أو قال : ذهبا من حقكم بشئ ؟ فقال : لا ، والذى أنزل القرآن على عبده ليكون للعالمين نذيرا ، ما ظلمنا من حقنا مثقال حبه من خردل ، قلت : جعلت فداك أفأتولاهما ؟ قال : نعم ويحك ! تولهما في الدنيا والاخرة ، وما أصابك ففى عنقي ، ثم قال : فعل الله بالمغيرة وبنان ، فإنهما كذبا علينا أهل البيت
It has been narrated from katheer un nawwal that he said : I said to Abu Jafar : May Allah give me the honor to be sacrificed for you, did Abu Bakr and Umar oppressed you regarding your rights? or said : Did they spoilt any of your rights? He said: No, by the One who revealed the Holy Quran on his servant, they didn't oppressed us regarding our rights a bit. I said : May I be sacrificed on you, should I keep them close? He said, Yes, keep them close to yourself in this world and the hereafter, and if it creates any trouble for you, than it shall be on my throat. Than he said : May Allah give Mughaira and Banan the same reward which they deserve, they lies on us Ahlel bayt.
Sharh Nahjul balagha, by Ibn Abil hadeed , Vol. 4, p. 113
Similarly Imam Zayd is reported to have said
أما لو كنت مكان أبي بكر، لحكمت بما حكم به أبو بكر في فدك
If I was in the place of Abu Bakr, I would have done the same as he did regarding Fadak
Al Aitqad al Mazhab al salaf, Baihaqi, p. 181
Sunan al Kubra, Baihaqi, vol. 6, p. 302
Ibn Abil Hadeed al rafidhi says in his sharah of nahjul balagha which he wrote for the Shia minister , Alqami, of the Abbasid era, on which he received huge reward from him.
كان أبو بكر يأخذ غلتها فيدفع إليهم منها ما يكفيهم ويقسم الباقي وكان عمر كذلك ثم عثمان ثم كان على كذلك
Abu Bakr would send the produce of Fadak to Ahlel bayt, as much was enough for them , and would distribute the rest (amongst the needies) , and same did Umar, and after him, Uthman, and after him Ali.
Sharh nahjul balagha, Ibn Abil hadeed, Vol. 2 ,p. 292
It has also been recorded by Ibn Maitham in his sharh of nahjul balagha and Ibrahim ibn al Haji's sharah of Nahjul balagha, named Durr al najafia , and Faizul Islam Ali Naqi in his sharh of Nahjul balagha
Sharh nahjul balagha, ibn maitham, Vol. 5, p. 107
Durr al najafia, Sharh nahjul balagha, p. 332
Sharh Nahjul balagha, by Faizul Islam Ali Naqi, Vol. 5, p. 920
Similarly, Ali is reported to have said when he was asked about Fadak, he also declined to change as was the custom in the era of Abu Bakr and Umar
إني لأستحي من الله أن أردّ شيئاً منع منه أبو بكر، وأمضاه عمر
Al shafi, by Sayyid Murtadha, p. 231
Sharh Nahjul balagha, Vol. 4, p. 130
Similarly, we read that Abu Bakr gave a maid slave to Ali also.
عن أبي جعفر قال أعطى أبو بكر عليا جارية
It has been narrated from Abu Jafar that he said : Abu Bakr gave a maid slave to Ali.
Musannif, Vol. 3, p. 138
كان يؤدي الصلوات الخمس في المسجد خلف الصديق راضيا بامامته ومظهراللناس اتفاقه معه ووئامه معه
"He(Ali) used to pray the five prayers in the mosque behind Al Siddeeq(Abu Bakr) and he accepted his Imamat and he showed the people that he was in agreement with him and that like liked him."
Al Ihtijaj for al Tabrasi p53.
Kitab Salim bin Qays p203.
Mira'at al Uqool for Majlisi p388.
It is claimed that Fatima had hatred towards Abu Bakr, and she even said that Abu Bakr should not be informed about her funeral prayer.
(we have already discussed the ahadith of Bukhari in other topic, and what is said that Fatima didn't talk to Abu Bakr till her death are not the words of Aisha, but this is the opinion of Imam Zuhri, and Zuhri's mursal is weak, while we have a mursal of Imam Shabee, and his mursal is sahih, in which it is mentioned that Fatima reconciled with Abu Bakr in her life).
The claim that Abu Bakr didn't attend the funeral prayer of Fatima is wrong. He did attend the funeral prayer. Though the hadith of sahihayn is contradictory, but it can be reconciled with other ahadith in which it is mentioned that Abu Bakr attended the funeral prayer of Fatima , if we take into consideration that he attended the funeral prayer later on. But it has in no way to do anything with hatred between Fatima and Abu Bakr, neither can the speculations or the Shia ahadith which says that Fatima said that Abu Bakr should not attend her funeral prayer. Because both Shias and Sunnis agree that it was the wife of Abu Bakr, Asma , whom Abu Bakr had sent to take care of Fatima when he was ill. This destroys the whole myth of hatred and tension between the two pious persons of Islam over a piece of land.
We read in Shia books that Asma bint Umais, the wife of Abu Bakr, took care of Fatima, when she was ill.
وكان يمرّضها بنفسه وتعينه على ذلك أسماء بنت عميس على استسرار بذلك
Baitul Ahzan, Shaikh Qummi,p. 171
Amali, Shaikh Tusi, VOl. 1, p. 107
Jila ul Ayun, Baqir Majlisi, p. 172
Kitabul Jafriyat bama Qurbul Asnad, p. 205
Similarly, Asma also participated in the funeral bath of Fatima
Istiab, Vol. 4,p. 322
Asadul Ghaba, Vol. 5, p. 478
Musannif Abur Razaq, Vol. 3, p. 410
It is mentioned in many books that Abu Bakr attended the funeral prayer of Fatima.
صلى أبو بكر الصديق على فاطمة بنت رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم فكبر عليها أربعا
Abu Bakr lead the funeral prayer of Fatima daughter of the Messenger of Allah (s) with four takbir.
Tabaqat ibn Sad, Vol. 8 ,p. 19
Sunan Al Kubra, Baihaqi, Vol. 4,p. 29
Kinzul Ammal, Vo. 7, p. 114
Riyaz un nazra, Vol. 1, p. 156
Hilyatul Awliya, Vol. 4, p. 96
Ali always prayed behind Abu Bakr in his life. Hence we read in al bidaya of Hafiz ibn Kathir
فإن علي بن أبي طالب لم يفارق الصديق في وقت من الأوقات، ولم ينقطع في صلاة من الصلوات خلفه
Ali never separated from Abu Bakr Siddiq in the time of prayer, and never stopped praying behind him
Al bidaya Vol. 5, p. 249
Similarly we read in the Shia books that Ali prayed behind Abu Bakr
وحضر المسجد، وصلى علي خلف أبي بكر
And he (i.e Ali) entered the masjid , and prayed behind Abu Bakr.
zameema maqbool ahmad , page 415
miratul aqul sharah usul, allama majlisi, page 388
tafseer qummi by ali bin ibrahim qummi , surah rom, page 295
itijaj tibrisi , page 53
madinatul muajiz , by syed hashim buhrani
baitul ahzan , shaikh abbas qummi
Similarly we read in the books of Sunnis and Shiites that Umar, Ali , Muadh ibn Jabal, Ubai ibn Kaab, Zaid ibn Thabit and Abdullah ibn Masud were the persons from whom fatwas would be taken in the era of Abu Bakr.
Tabaqat ibn Saad, baab ahlul ilm wal fatwa min ashab rasul (s), Vol. 2, p. 109
Tarikh Yaqubi, Vol. 2, p. 138
We read in the books of history
خرج شاهرا سيفه إلى ذي القصة ، فجاءه علي وأخذ بزمام راحلته وقال له : أين يا خليفة رسول الله - صلى الله عليه وسلم - ! أقول لك ما قال لك رسول الله - صلى الله عليه وسلم - يوم أحد : شم سيفك ، لا تفجعنا بنفسك ، فوالله لئن أصبنا بك لا يكون للإسلام نظام . فرجع وأمضى الجيش
He (i.e Abu Bakr) went towards Dhil Qissa with his sword than Ali came and stopped him and said "O Caliph of Prophet (s), where are you going?" I want to say the same thing to you which the Prophet (s) said to you on the day of Uhud. Put your sword in its sheath and don't put us in trouble regarding yourself. By God, if we got trouble regarding you, than the system of Islam will not stay correct, so Abu Bakr returned and sent an armed group.
Tarikh ibn Kamil
Al bidaya wa al nihaya, Vol. 6, p. 315
So from this we come to know that Ali also participated with the Muslims when the battles started in the era of Abu Bakr. Referring to it, Ali said:
فنهضت في تلك الأحداث حتى زاح الباطل و زهق و اطمأن الدين و تنهنه
than I stood up during those difficult times till the falsehood was finished and the "deen" became safe.
Bihar al anwar
Similarly we read in Trikh Tibri and Sharah Nahjul balagha
وجعل أبو بكر بعد ما أخرج الوفد على أنقاب المدنية نفرا عليا والزبير وطلحة وعبدالله بن مسعود
Tarikh Tabari, Vol. 3, p. 223
Sharah nahjul balagha, ibn abil hadeed, Vol. 4, p. 228
and in Al bidaya wa al nihaya and Tarikh ibn Khaldun,
فجعل الصديق على أنقاب المدينة حراسا يبيتون بالجيوش حولها، فمن أمراء الحرس علي بن أبي طالب، والزبير بن العوام، وطلحة بن عبد الله، وسعد بن أبي وقاص، وعبد الرحمن بن عوف، وعبد الله بن مسعود
Al bidaya wa alnihaya, Vol. 6, p. 311
Tarikh ibn Khaldun, Vol. 2, p. 858
Hence, it is confirmed that Abu Bakr sent armed groups to guard the roads of Madinah, under the commad of Ali ibn Abi Talib , Zubair bin al awwam, Talha bin abdullah , Saad bin Abi Waqas , Abdur Rahman bin Auf and Abdullah ibn Masud.
Ali would take share from the war booty that the Muslims would receive, hence the most clear proof of it are his descendants, Umar, Ruqayya, and the more famous one amongst the Shias, Muhammad ibn Hanafiyah. Apart from the slave maid that Ali received as we mentioned above, the mother of Umar ibn Ali and Ruqayya bint Ali is Umm Habib bint Rabiya, and her name is Suhba, she was received as a war captive in the battle against Bani Taghlab.
وعمر الاكبر بن علي ورقية بنت علي وأمهما الصهباء وهي أم حبيب بنت ربيعة بن بجير بن العبد بن علقمة بن الحارث بن عتبة بن سعد بن زهير بن جشم بن بكر بن حبيب بن عمرو بن غنم بن تغلب بن وائل وكانت سبية أصابها خالد بن الوليد حين أغار على بني تغلب بناحية عين التمر
Tabaqat ibn Sad, Vol. 5, p. 86
Nasb Quraish p. 42
Futuhul Buldan, p. 117
It has been mentioned in Shia books also.
عمر الاطرف بن أمير المؤمنين على بن أبى طالب " ع " ويكنى أبا القاسم ، قاله الموضح النسابة ، وقال ابن خداع : يكنى أبا حفص . وولد توأما لاخته رقية ، وكان آخر من ولد من بنى على المذكور ، وأمه الصهباء الثعلبية وهى أم حبيب بنت عباد بن ربيعة بن يحيى بن العبد بن علقمة من سبى اليمامة ، وقيل من سبى خالد بن الوليد من عين التمر
Ummadatut Talib, p. 361
Sharh Nahjul Balagha , Ibn Hadeed al Rafidhi, Vol. 2, p. 718
Muhammad ibn Hanafiyah was the son of Khawla bint Jafar bin Qais, who was a war captive, in the battle of Yamama.
Tabqat ibn Sad, Vol. 5, p. 66
Muarif , ibn Qutaiba, p. 91
Tarikh ibn Khalkan, Vol. 1,p. 449
أبى القاسم محمد بن أمير المؤمنين على بن أبى طالب " ع " وهو المشهور بابن الحنفية وأمه خولة بنت جعفر بن قيس بن مسلمة بن عبد الله ابن ثعلبة بن يربوع بن ثعلبة بن الدئل بن حنفية بن لجيم ، وهى من سبى أهل الردة
Ummadatut Talib, p. 353
Both the battles, i.e the battle against the tribe Bani Taghlab and the battle of Yamama were lead by Khalid bin Walid.
Similarly when some spoils were received in the battle at Haira, Abu Bakr gifted them to Hussain son of Ali.
ووجه إلى أبى بكر بالطيلسان مع مال الحيرة وبالالف درهم. فوهب الطيلسان للحسين بن على رضى الله عنهما
Futuhul Buldan, p. 254
So we realize from these facts that close relationships always remained between the ahlelbayt and Abu Bakr.
And the history tells us that these relationships between the two families remained for a long time, hence we come to know from the history that Ali's son Hasan married the grand daughter of Abu Bakr, i.e Hafsa bint Abdur Rahman bin Abu Bakr. Similarly Hussain bin Ali's grandson Imam Baqir bin Ali married Muhammad bin Abu Bakr's grand daughter Umm Farwah bint Qasim. Out of this historical marriage, Imam Jafar was born , to whom Shias attribute their fiqh (jurisprudence).
Three other marriages are also noteworthy to be mentioned.
- Umm Salma bint Muhammad bin Talha bin Abdullah bin Abdur Rahman bin Abu Bakr married Musa bin Abdullah bin Hasan bin Hasan bin Ali.
- Umm Hakim bint Qasim bin Muhammad bin Abu Bakr married Ishaq bin Abdullah bin Abu Jafar bin Abu Talib
- Ishaq bin Abdullah bin Ali bin Hussain bin Ali married Kulthum bint Ismail bin Abdur Rahman bin Qasim bin Muhammad bin Abu Bakr.
Kitab ul Irshad, p. 270
Aalam un Nisa, p. 278
Ummadatut Talib, p. 225
Asili by Ibn Taqtaqi, p. 149
Nasb Quraish, by Musab Zubairi
We also find that Ali named one of his sons , Abu Bakr.
Kashaful Ghummah, p. 590
Maqatil ut Talibeen, p. 34
Hasan also named one of his sons, Abu Bakr.
Hussain also named one of his sons, Abu Bakr.
Musa al Kazim also named one of his sons , Abu Bakr.
Tarikh Yaqubi, p. 228
Tanbih wal Ashraf , by Masudi, p. 263
Kashaful Ghummah, Vol. 3, p. 10
Similarly we find that the descendants of Ali named their daughters , Aisha, also.
Musa al Kazim named his daughter Aisha.
Kitabul Irshad, by Shaikh Mufeed, p. 283
Kashaful Ghummah, Vol. 3, p. 39
Imam Ali al Raza named his daughter Aisha.
وأما أولاده فكانوا ستة خمسة ذكور وبنت واحدة، وأسماء أولاده: محمد القانع، الحسن، جعفر، إبراهيم، الحسين، وعايشة
Kashaful Ghummah, Vol. 3, p. 89
Now if you read the Shia fatwas, you will come to know the height of their ignorance.
Here is a fatwa published on www.al-islam.org
as salaam alaikum -
I have a brief question for you concerning the name A'isha. I am fairly new
to Islam and me and my wife are expecting our first child. At any rate, I
was wondering if such a name would be discouraged within the Shi'a
Islamic community due to the association she had with rebelling against
'Ali etc. or if it is a common enough name so as to not have relevence in
Your advice will be much appreciated.
Due to her actions against Imam Ali during the times of the Prophet and
after his death (including the famous battle of the Camel), the followers
of the ahl al-bayt are not encouraged to keep her name for their children.
It actually tells us one thing, people don't name their children after the names of the people whom they hightly detest. The shias hate Aisha and Abu Bakr, so they don't name their children after them, but it was not the case with the Imams whom they claim to follow. Hence they named their children Abu Bakr and Aisha.
When Umar was appointed the Caliph ,
فقام علي فقال لا نرضى إلا أن يكون عمر بن الخطاب
Ali stood up and said : We will not agree upon anyone else in this matter except Umar.
Musannif , Kitabul Fazail
Asadul Ghaba, Vol. 4 ,p. 70
Riyadh un nadhra, Vol. 2, p. 88
Tarikh ul Khulufa, p. 61
We read in Kinzul Ammal that Ali said:
أشار لعمر ولم يألُ فبايعه المسلمون وبايعته معهم
(Abu Bakr) pointed to Umar (i.e pointed that he should be caliph) and he didn't err in it , hence the Muslims rendered allegiance to him, and I rendered allegiance alongwith them.
Kinzul Ammal, Kitabul Fatan, Vol. 6, p. 82
Shias say that Ali , under pressure, gave allegiance to Abu Bakr, Umar and Uthman. This concept can't be accepted, because we read in the Quran
[004:097] When angels take the souls of those who die in sin against their souls, they say: "In what (plight) Were ye?" They reply: "Weak and oppressed Were we in the earth." They say: "Was not the earth of God spacious enough for you to move yourselves away (From evil)?" Such men will find their abode in Hell,- What an evil refuge!
The tafsir on the Shia website, by Poya , on this verse says
"If the proper observation of the obligations of the faith is not possible in the land of one's birth and dwelling, one can migrate to some other place on Allah's wide and spacious earth."
Tafsir by Poya Mehdi
So it was incumbent upon Ali and others to have moved to another land, if indeed he was oppressed. Rather he was supposedly (according to the Shias) the Imam, and Imam himself (even if under pressure) gave allegiance to the three caliphs, and lived (according to the Shias) under taqiyah, and even defended their caliphate by participating in the wars alongwith them (as we have proved and we will give further proofs inshaAllah) and took their share from the spoils which the armies of the caliphs received, and gave them advises on various occasions, and marriages happened between the children of sahaba (whom the Shias despice) and the children of ahlel bayt. Indeed this is an accusation on the Imams themselves, and they are indeed free from this slander of Shias, rather the Shias have concocted such theories to defend their cult, and have no basis in reality.
When , in the era of Umar, it was decided to pay the nobles of Islam , a certain amount of money/stipend, so as to better their financial situation, we read
و فرض لأبناء البدريين ألفين ألفين إلا حسنا و حسينا فإنه ألحقهما بفريضة أبهما لقرابتهما برسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم
And two thousand dirham for the sons of the Sahaba who participated in Badr, except Hasan and Hussain, for whom it was equal to their father (i.e five thousand dirham like other sahaba of Badr) because they were close in relation to the Prophet (s)
Tabaqat ibn Sad, Vol. 3, p. 313
Kitabul Khiraj, p. 43
Futuhul Buldan, p. 454
Similarly we read in al bidaya that when Madain was conquered and Sad ibn Waqas sent the spoils and other things to the Muslims at Madinah
أن عمر لما نظر إلى ذلك قال إن قوما أدوا هذا لامناء ، فقال له علي بن أبي طالب: إنك عففت فعفت رعيتك، ولو رتعت لرتعت. ثم قسم عمر ذلك في المسلمين فأصاب عليا قطعة من البساط فباعها بعشرين ألفا
Umar looked at it and said that the nation has sent these things, so Ali ibn Abi Talib said : you treat the nation well so the nation treated you well, and if you had become careless, so the nation would also have become careless. Than Umar distributed it amongst the Muslims and Ali received a piece of carpet which he sold on twenty thousand dirham.
Al bidaya, Vol. 7, p. 67
Similarly we read in Musannif that this was how Umar started distributing it amongst the Muslims
ثم دعا حسن بن علي أول الناس فحثا له ، ثم دعا حسينا ثم أعطى الناس
First he called upon Hasan bin Ali and gave him his share, and than he called upon Hussain and than he started giving it to other people.
Musannif , Vol. 11, p. 100
Similarly it has been recorded in the books that Umar also gave a piece of land to Ali
إن علياً رضي الله عنه سأل عمر بن الخطاب رضي الله عنه فأقطعه ينبع
Kitabul Khiraj, p. 78
Sunan al kubra, Vol. 6, p. 144
Futuhul Buldan , p. 20
Kitab al as'af fi ahkam al auqat, by Burhanud din ibrahim ibn Musa, p. 7
Mujam al buldan, Vol. 20, p. 450
Similarly we read another story which shows that both Ali and Umar had very close relations.
When Umar married Aatikah, he invited people
فدعا جمعا فيهم علي بن أبي طالب فقال : يا أمير المؤمنين دعني أكلم عاتكة . قال : فافعل . فأخذ بجانبي الباب وقال : يا عدية نفسها أين قولك :
فآليت لا تنفك عيني حزينة ... عليك ولا ينفك جلدي أغبرا
فبكت فقال عمر : ما دعاك إلى هذا يا أبا الحسن كل النساء يفعلن هذا
Amongst them was Ali ibn Abi Talib, who said: O Amir al Momineen, can I talk to Aatika. He said: You can. Than he said, Do you remember your this saying (which she said on the death of her earlier husband)
I have sweared that my eyes will remain sad forever, and I will remain in dust forever.
On this , she wept. Hence Umar said to Ali: (You are making her sad) All women do like this (i.e they get emotional and say words like that in emotions)
Asadul ghaba, Vol. 5, p. 498
Nasb Quraish, Vol. 10, P. 365
Istiab Vol. 4,p. 355
Once Umar called upon Hussain, when Hussain came, he met Abdullah ibn Umar. He (i.e Abdullah ibn Umar said: I haven't been allowed to meet him. When Hussain came to know this, he returned. Than when he met Umar later, Umar said: Why you didn't come? Hussain said: When I came to meet you , I saw that Abdullah , your son, has also not been allowed to meet you , so I returned. Upon this, Umar said: Are you like Ibn Umar? He has another status , and you have another status.
أمر عمر الحسين بن علي أن يأتيه في بعض الحاجة فلقي الحسين عليه السلام عبد الله بن عمر فسأله من أين جاء؟ قال : استأذنت على أبي فلم يأذن لي فرجع الحسين ولقيه عمـر من الغد، فقال : ما منعك أن تأتيني؟ قال: قد أتيتك، ولكن أخبرني ابنك عبد الله أنه لم يؤذن له عليك فرجعت، فقال عمر : وأنت عندي مثله؟ وهل أنبت الشعر على الرأس غيركم
Tarikh Baghdad , Vol. 1, p. 141
Sharh Nahjul Balagha, by Ibn Hadeed al Rafidhi, Vol. 3, p. 161
We read another story of love of Umar for the descendants of Prophet (s)
أن عمر كسا أبناء الصحابة ولم يكن في ذلك ما يصلح للحسن والحسين, فبعث إلى اليمن فأتي بكسوة لهما فقال: الآن طابت نفسي
Umar distributed clothes amongst the sons of Sahaba , but there was no good one for Hasan and Hussain. He sent (men) towards Yemen, so they brought clothes for them, than he said : Now I'm feeling glad.
Riyadh un Nadhra, Vol. 8, p. 207
Kinzul Ammal, Vol. 7, p. 106
Talkhis Ibn Asakir, Vol. 4, p. 322
Similarly the annual stipend of Asma bint Umais, the wife of Ali, when the Muslims received wealth as a result of conquering in the reign of Umar, was One thousand dirham per year.
ففرض لأسماء بنت عميس ألف درهم
Kitab ul Khiraj, p. 43
Tabqat ibn Sad, Vol. 3, p. 213
Shaikh Abbas Qummi writes in his book
There is a masjid in Isfahan. It is called Lisan al Arz. The people of that place say that when Imam Hasan went there during the reign of Umar Ibn al Khattab with the army of Muslims, this land talked to Imam Hasan. That is why it is called 'Lisan al Arz'
Muntaha, Shaikh Abbas Qummi, p. 276
From this , it is confirmed that Imam Hasan was a part of the Muslim army during the reign of Umar.
When Umar went to Palestine , he appointed Ali as his vizier.
لما استمد أهل الشام عمر على أهل فلسطين استخلف عليا
Tarikh Tabri, Vol. 4, p. 159
Kinzul Ammal, Vol. 7 , p. 69
Ali also participated in the funeral ceremony of Umar. Hence we read in al Kamil
نزل فى قبره (عمر) عثمان و على
al-Kamil, Vol. 3, p. 28
Amongst the very few sahaba whom the Shia give some respect is Salman, and the history tells us that he also acted as the governor of Umar.
We read in Talkhees al-Shafi
تولى سلمان لعمر المدائن
Salman acted as governor for Umar in Madain
Talkhees al-Shafi , p. 402
See Hayat-ul-Qulub:Vol.2, p.780
عن علي بن أبي طالب أنه سئل عن عثمان فقال ذاك امرؤ يدعى في الملأ الأعلى ذا النورين كان ختن رسول الله على ابنتيه
Ali ibn Abi Talib was asked about Uthman , so he said : He is the person who is remembered as "Dhul Nurayn" near Mala al-Ala (that is the gathering of angels in the heavens), for the Prophet (s) married his two daughters to him (i.e Uthman).
Isaba ma' Istiab , Vol. 2, p. 455
Tarikhul Khulufa, p. 105
Kinzul Ammal, Vol. 6, p. 373
Similarly we read in Kinzul Ammal
سئل علي عن عثمان قال : نعم يسمى في السماء الرابعة ذا النورين
Ali was asked about Uthman on which he said : His name Dhul nurayn is written on the fourth heaven.
Kinzul Ammal, Vol. 6, p. 379
Ali is reported to have said:
من تبرأ من دين عثمان فقد تبرأ من الإيمان
Who ever dissociates from the deen of Uthman, he has indeed dissociated from Iman.
Istiab ma' Isaba, Vol. 3, p. 76
The Prophet (s) is reported to have said:
إن أبا بكر مني بمنزلة السمع ، وإن عمر مني بمنزلة البصر ، وإن عثمان منى بمنزلة الفؤاد
Abu Bakr is to me like ear, Umar is to me like eyes, Uthman is to me like heart.
Maani al Akhbar, Shaikh Saduq, p. 110
Ibn Abbas is reported to have said:
ختن رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم، فأعقب الله على من يلعنه لعنة اللاعنين، إلى يوم الدين
He (i.e Abu Umru i.e Uthman) was the son in law of Prophet (s) , may Allah's curse be upon those who curse him till the day of Judgement.
Tarikh Masudi, Vol. 3, p. 60
Nasikh ut tawarikh , Vol. 5, p. 144
We read in the famous Shia book , Qurbul Asnad
إن أبا بكر, وعمر، وعثمان, وعلي كانوا يرفعون الحدود إلى علي بن أبى طالب
In the era of Abu Bakr, Umar and Uthman, the Hudood cases were dealt by Ali ibn Abi Talib.
Qurbul Asnad, p. 133
Another Hashimite, Mughaira bin Nofal, who married the widow of Ali after his death, and who was the grandson of Ali's Uncle, Harith bin Abdul Muttalib, acted as governor during the era of Uthman.
وكان المغيرة بن نوفل قاضياً في خلافة عثمان
Istiab , Vol. 3, p. 366
Asadul ghaba, Vol. 4, p. 408
Similarly , another Hashimite, Abdullah ibn Harith ibn Nofal ibn Harith (the brother of Abu Talib) ibn Abdul Muttalib, was given certain task in the era of Prophet (s) in Mecca, andit remained the same in the era of the three caliphs.
واستعمل رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم الحارث بن نوفل على بعض أعمال مكة ثم ولاه أبو بكر وعمر وعثمان مكة
Tabaqat ibn Sad, Vol. 4, p. 39
Once there arose a quarrel between Aqeel ibn Abi Talib and his wife Fatima bint Utba, on which Fatima went to Uthman
فشدت عليها ثيابها فجاءت عثمان فذكرت له ذلك, فضحك, فأرسل ابن عباس ومعاوية, فقال ابن عباس, لأفرقن بينهما, فقال معاوية: ما كنت لأفرق بين شيخين من بني عبد مناف, فأتياهما فوجداهما قد أغلقا عليهما أبوابهما فرجعا
And narrated to him what happened, Uthman laughed at it, then he sent this issue to Ibn Abbas and Muawiyah. Ibn Abbas said : They should be separated. Muawiyah said : I don't want separation between two noble personalities of bani abd manaf. Afterwards they went to Aqeel's home, and they saw that they had reconciled, so they returned.
Musannif, by Abdur Razaq, Vol. 6, p. 513
We read in al bidaya of Ibn Kathir
إن عمر بن الخطاب وعثمان بن عفان كانا إذا مرا بالعباس وهما راكبان ترجلا إكراما له
When Umar and Uthman would pass near Abbas while they were riding , they would dismount and would go by feet due to respect for him.
Al bidaya wa al nihaya, Vol. 7, p. 162
Istiab ma' Isaba, Vol. 3, p. 98
Tahzeeb al tahzeeb, Vol. 5, p. 123
This was because the Prophet (s) would also give respect to Abbas
وقد كان رسول الله ، صلى الله عليه وسلم ، يجله ويعظمه وينزله منزلة الوالد من الولد
The Prophet (s) would give resect to Abbas like the children respect their father
Al bidaya wa al nihaya, Vol. 7, p. 161
Hence we read in Tarikh Tibri
كان مما أحدث عثمان فرضي به منه أنه ضرب رجلا في منازعة استخف فيها بالعباس بن عبد المطلب فقيل له فقال نعم أيفخم رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم عمه وأرخص في الاستخفاف به لقد خالف رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم من فعل ذلك ومن رضي به منه
Uthman started a new thing, and it was liked, he beated a person who talked ill about Abbas bin Abdul Muttalib. The people asked him about it, he said : So the Prophet (s) will respect his uncle (i.e Abbas) and I will let the people degrade him? Whoever likes such a thing (that is the degradation of one to whom the Prophet (s) would give respect) , he actually opposed the Prophet (s).
Tarikh Tibri, Vol. 5, p. 136
Kinzul Ammal, Vol. 7, p. 69
The funeral prayer of Abbas bin Abdul Muttalib was also lead by Uthman, and he was buried in Jannatul Baqi.
وصلى عليه عثمان بن عفان ، ودفن بالبقيع
Al bidaya , Vol. 7, p. 162
The son of Uthman, Abaan ibn Uthman, lead the funeral prayer of two noble Hashimite personalities, Muhammad ibn Hanafiya, the son of Ali, and Abdullah ibn Jafar ibn Tayyar.
Tabaqat ibn Sad, Vol. 5, p. 86
Asadul ghaba, Vol. 3,p. 135
Istiab ma' Isaba, Vol. 2, p. 267
In the year 30 A.H , a Muslim army , under the leadership of Saeed ibn al-Aas (the then governor of Kufa) was prepared, in this army were present noble sahaba wa aal-e-Muhammad like Hasan , Hussain , Ibn Abbas, and Ibn Umar, Abdullah ibn Umru ibn al-Aas , Huzaifa ibn Sulayman, and Ibn Zubair.
فإن سعيدًا غزاها من الكوفة سنة ثلاثين ومعه الحسن والحسين وابن عباس وعبد الله بن عمر بن الخطاب وعبد الله بن عمرو بن العاص وحذيفة بن اليمان وابن الزبير وناس من أصحاب النبي ـ صلى الله عليه وسلم
al-Kaamil, Vol. 3, p. 54
This is mentioned in other history books also.
Tarikh ibn Jarir , Vol. 5, p. 67
Al bidaya, Vol. 7, p. 154
Tarikh Ibn Khaldun, Vol. 6, p. 1018
Similarly , in another compaign in 32 A.H (in the era of Uthman) on Jilan and Jurjan, Abu Huraira and Salman al Farsi participated in the Muslim army.
وفرقة سلكوا ناحية جيلان وجرجان، وفي هؤلاء أبو هريرة وسلمان الفارسي
Al bidaya wa al nihaya, Vol. 7, p. 160
Tarikh Tibri, Vol. 5 ,p. 78
Mubad ibn Abbas, the son of Abbas ibn Muttalib, and whose mother was Umm Fadhal, martyred in another compaign in 35 A.H (in the era of Uthman)
و بإفريقية استشهد معبد بن العباس رحمه الله فى غزاة ابن أبى سرح فى خلافة عثمان
Futuhul Buldan , p. 226
This is also mentioned in the following books
Asadul ghaba, Vol. 4, p. 292
Al Kamil, Vol. 3, p. 66
Again we read , that once Saeed ibn al-Aaas came to Madinah from Kufah, and he brought gifts to the Muhajireen and Ansar, amongst them Ali also, who accepted the gifts from him.
وقدم سعيد بن العاص المدينة وافدا على عثمان فبعث إلى وجوه المهاجرين والأنصار بصلات وكسا وبعث إلى علي بن أبي طالب أيضا فقبل ما بعث به إليه وقال علي إن بني أمية ليفوقوني تراث محمد تفويقا
Tabaqat ibn Saad, Vol. 5, p. 21
Tarikh Dimishq, Vol. 21, p. 114
And it goes without mentioning that when Persia was conquered, the two daughters of the Persian king were married to Hasan and Hussain , the two sons of Ali, it can be differed whether it was done in the era of Umar or Uthman, but whatever the case, the Shias have nothing but to accept that one of these two caliphs gave the daughters to the sons of Ali, who married them.
Tanqih al Maqal, by Shaikh Mamaqani al Rafidhi, Vol. 3, p. 80
When Uthman was martyred , Ali went to him
أن عليا دخل على عثمان فوقع عليه وجعل يبكي حتى ظنوا أنه سيلحق به
Ali came to Uthman and fell on him and wept, so much that it seemed as he has joined him (i.e he has also passed away)
Al bidaya wa alnihaya Vol. 7,p. 193
دخل علي رضي الله عنه يوماً على بناته وهن يمسحن عيونهن ، فقال : ما لكن تبكين ؟ قلن : نبكي على عثمان ، فبكى
One day Ali came to his daughters and they were wiping their tear-filled eyes , he said : Why are you weeping? They said : we are weeping over (the martyrdom of) Uthman, on this , he also wept.
al ansab, wal ashraf, Vol. 5, p. 103
Ali also participated in the funeral prayer of Uthman
خرج مروان حتى أتى دار عثمان فأتاه زيد بن ثابت وطلحة بن عبيدالله وعلي والحسن وكعب بن مالك وعامة من ثم من صحابه فتوافى إلى موضع الجنائز صبيان ونساء فأخرجوا عثمان فصلى عليه مروان ثم خرجوا به حتى انتهوا إلى البقيع فدفنوه فيه مما يلي حش كوكب
Marwan , Zaid ibn Thabit, Talha, Ali , Hasan ibn Ali, Kaab bin Malik, and the other people who were his companions , came to Uthman's home, and some boys and women also joined them. They took Uthman out of his home and Marwan prayed over him, than they took him to Jannatul Baqi, and buried him there, which is near Hash Kokab.
Tarikh Tibri, Vol. 5, p. 144
Tarikh Dimishq, Vol. 5, p. 240
محمد رسول الله والذين معه اشداء على الكفار رحماء بينهم تراهم ركعا سجدا يبتغون فضلا من الله ورضوانا سيماهم في وجوههم من اثر السجود ذلك مثلهم في التوراة ومثلهم في الانجيل كزرع اخرج شطأه فازره فاستغلظ فاستوى على سوقه يعجب الزراع ليغيظ بهم الكفار وعد الله الذين امنوا وعملوا الصالحات منهم مغفرة واجرا عظيما
Muhammad is the apostle of God; and those who are with him are strong against Unbelievers, (but) compassionate amongst each other. Thou wilt see them bow and prostrate themselves (in prayer), seeking Grace from God and (His) Good Pleasure. On their faces are their marks, (being) the traces of their prostration. This is their similitude in the Taurat; and their similitude in the Gospel is: like a seed which sends forth its blade, then makes it strong; it then becomes thick, and it stands on its own stem, (filling) the sowers with wonder and delight. As a result, it fills the Unbelievers with rage at them. God has promised those among them who believe and do righteous deeds forgiveness, and a great Reward.